Basically, the function
of emailing consists of 2 parts (1) User
- Message Transfer
Agent the exchange of mail using TCP/IP
is performed by MTA that defines how email messages are transmitted between
MAC (Media Access Control) manages one of the sublayers handles access to shared media.
address are 6
bytes long and are controlled by the IEEE. It is a standardized data link
layer address that is required for every port or device that connects to a
LAN. Other devices in the network use these addresses to locate specific
ports in the network and to create and update routing tables and data
structures. MAC address are also known as;
address, MAC-layer address or Physical
NAT - Network
Address Translation allows a router that represent an entire LAN to
the Internet--to act as a single IP address. When a packet is sent-out
from a LAN the NAT interface changes the
to a global IP address. Since a LAN cannot be seen from the outside, the
internal IP addresses need not be registered. The normal range of private addresses:
- A program that allows a user to remotely login into a
distant and remote computer site (usually a password and login ID is
Throughput - The outgoing & incoming datagram (bits & bytes) between; your computer, ISPs connection and the Internet network.
MaxMtu (MTU) Maximum Transmission Unit - is the default packet Windows uses to negotiate when a connection is opened between two computers, they must agree on an MTU by comparing MTU and selecting the smaller of the two. If it is set too large for routers, it is then fragmented into packet size and can take double the amount of time it takes to send a single packet.
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter Data flow between the serial port and the modem is governed by a UART chip, which can contain no data buffers, single-byte data buffers or 16-byte data buffers. All data flows between the serial port and the modem via the UART
MSS (Maximum Segment Size) is the largest segment of TCP data that
Winsock is prepared to receive on a particular connection. When the TCP connection is initially established, both uses the minimum of each other's MSS value. If the MSS is too low,
the data/header ratio will be low. If the MSS is too high, will lead to large
IP datagram and the packets will tend to fragment in transit where other
networks may be having smaller
MaxMtu - Hence,
performance can be increase by reducing MSS value.
TTL-Time To Live,
is a field in the IP header which indicates how long a packet should be allowed to survive before it is discarded.
TTL essentially determines the maximum number of
Internet Control Message Protocol are used by routers and
nodes to perform error reporting for Internet Protocol. It report errors such as invalid
IP address, invalid port address, and the packet has
hops too many times.
For Comments, a series of officially defined technical documentation on
SMTP - Simple Mail Transport Protocol a protocol governing email transmission and reception (sending and receiving emails between mail servers).
return error codes lists
Winsock Error Codes - return error codes by Windows Sockets API WSAGetLastErrorcall lists. A listings of Windows error codes.
ESMTP, SMTP Connect and Data Receive, Reply Codes Command Groups lists
Port Numbers are services that a machine performs by a program by listening on a port. A port number is actually a number between 1 and 65535 which identifies to the receiving computer what function you want it to perform.
Router or gateway is a hardware device that forwards packets from one network to another. IP uses a routing table to determine which networks that packets can be forwarded to and will only forward them to networks that it has been configured to do so.
- The sending and receiving mail server are busy and having different
timeouts, when one of them gives up while the
other is still trying--resulting in the connection being terminated
unexpectedly. Or the "receiving or sending" mail server terminate the
connection due to imposed limits by time or quantity of mails.
Internet SMTP mail server computer on which mailboxes reside and each host has
a mail server which can receive mails and store them--for delivery (relay)
to corresponding mailboxes or internal mailboxes.
receive, stores and transmits email, it is a computer that is independent of your PCs
somewhere in a building--managed by your Internet Service
Provider or corporate IT department. You can use any PCs to get at the Mail Server
or receiving email from any
Email exploders - Software programs that maintain mailing lists in a database that receive emails and forward them to each member in the list.
Email gateway - A computer dedicated to processing emails to manage and maintain large mailing lists database without human intervention, ie: auto receive and forwards mails, users subscriptions or unsubscribe, etc.
Listserv - A software program used for creating and managing Internet mailing lists, ie: An individual sends an email to a listserv; it then sends a copy of the message to all listserv members.
Server - A computer that serves other computers. A Host server stores web sites.
sendmail - A software program for sending emails.
Command - is a request for mail service action sent by the sender SMTP to the receiver SMTP
UDP - User Datagram Protocol, transport protocol used in place of TCP for wireless connection applications, it also encapsulates a "simple" header onto an application packet.
FTP - File Transfer Protocol, are commands for software programs that let users transfer files across the Internet (upload or download files). The most common ways to access a FTP is through a "browser", an FTP program or by issuing FTP commands at a text-based command prompt.
ISP - Internet Service Provider a company that provides any kind of access to the Internet, such as dial-up modem, cable modem, hosting, etc.
Web server - A host that store web pages or sites and wait for a browser to opens a connection that request a specific page, it then send a copy of the requested item and closes the connection.
URL - Uniform Resource Locator consist of some "Text" followed by the "colon" -- it is a communication protocol that tells a (ie: web-browser, email clients) program residing in a computer what to do.
HTTP - Hyper Text Transport Protocol. URL is entered into a browser--it asks DNS for the IP address using the IP name in the URL, makes a TCP connection to port 80 of a remote host specified by the IP address, connect to the web server, send a GET command and the web server sends the webpage, the browser close the TCP connection and displays the webpage.
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