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RFC Defined ESMTP SMTP Status Error Codes.
T
he first number generally tells whether the server accepted
the command and if it could manage it.
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New enhanced ESMTP Status/Error Codes
and descriptions defined by RFC Protocol -
Page 2/3

RFC related sites
Winsock Error Codes
Mail Object Error Message
ESMTP Status ErrorCodes Command Group
Definition of extension to the SMTP service RFC-821
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RFC defined SMTP Status Error Codes

SMTP protocol specific response code design provides some useful (numeric) codes used for reporting mail (delivery status) system errors (Protocol method of sending and receiving data).

SMTP is a simple ASCII protocol. SMTP is a protocol governing electronic mail transmission and reception (sending and receiving emails between mail servers).

Notes: ASCII is a standard developed by the;
American National Standards Institute ANSI to define how computers write & read characters --used by most OS (but not by Windows NT)

Operational Sequent of SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

How two MTAs (Message Transfer Agent) communicate with each other using a single TCP connection?

  1. Email is delivered by the source host (sender) establishing a TCP connection to port 25 of the (recipient) destination host and wait...
     
  2. An email daemon speaking SMTP simple ASCII rfc 821 listening at port 25 on the (recipient) destination hose identify itself and tell the (sender) whether it will accept mail....
     
  3. *If not* Server-time-out--the sending mail server terminate the connection and try again later, after a predefined undeliverable attempts--any undeliverable message will be returned with an error report containing the first part (message headers) to the sender.
     
  4. If the (recipient) mail server is willing to accept the mail, the (sender) mail server sends the email address of the recipient...
     
  5. If it is a valid recipient email address, the (recipient)
    mail server gives a go-ahead signal...

     
  6. Message is sent and acknowledged
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